Last modified: 09.03.19

From this point of view, Studies in Time has to do with the intuitive apperception of interconnectivity and identity, scrying the evolute we, and in that rede of rolling out, this site's about transpersonality, but that's more obscure in some ways, so, instead, let's say it's about apprehension of time and events in multiplexity, with collection of observations or representations of nature and movement, organized, categorized by means of several schemata, beginning model of five then increasing to nine or more elements or principals or phases that identify fluence, from the tensely sensed and somewhat known, to the unexpected cyclone that blows the frames of meaning.

Conflicts, confusion, aggressive ideologs and follow-me illuminati, memetic waves and filters decay, illusions at play down twisty turns as vision and reason are spurned in tenebrous tunnels of disconnect. Established conditions, presumptions, plans and positions fragmented by unexpected contingency, smithered by forces unimagined, too big to see, or simply ignored. Less and less are thought things as they ought to be, with craving more apparently the misery. Prima facie, all of it as true as it is false.
So, in the moment, in this passage of time, there is to center, commune,
discern, work with and through, align, adapt, and renew.

Indications and impacts of change on a larger scale, affecting many individuals,
focus on collectivity, inter-reality, common identity, and psychospirituality.

Four notions that affect all our views and perceptions — and need to be thrown away...

Excerpt from Awakening of the Heart: Essential Buddhist Sutras and Commentaries,
"Commentary on the Sutra of the Middle Way", by Thich Nhat Hanh.
Berkley, CA: Parallax Press. (2011:450-452). Emphases added.

In the Diamond Sutra, the Buddha talks about four notions that affect all our views and perceptions.
These four notions need to be thrown away.

The first notion we need to throw away is the notion of self. There is the idea that I am this body, this body is me or, this body is mine and it belongs to me. We say these things based on the notion that "I am." But a better statement would be, "I inter-am". It's closer to the truth in the light of interconnected-ness; we see there is no separate self that can exist by itself. You cannot exist without your parents, your ancestors, food, water, air, earth, and everything else in the cosmos. By looking deeply into the nature of reality, we can throw away the notion "I am."

The second notion the Diamond Sutra advises us to throw away is the notion of person or human being. When we look into the human being, we see animal ancestors, we see plant and mineral ancestors. A human is made of non-human elements. If we take away the nonhuman elements, the human being would no longer be there. This is the oldest teaching on deep ecology. In order to protect the human being, you have to protect what is not human. Discriminating between human and nature is a wrong view.

The third wrong notion is that of living beings. We distinguish living beings from non-living beings. We distinguish humans and animals from plants and minerals. But looking deeply into living beings, we see elements that we call non-living beings: plants and minerals. You can see that plants and minerals are also alive. After meditation we see there's no real frontier separating living beings and so-called non-living beings.

Green Tara

Green Tara, female Buddha and meditational deity, goddess associated with enlightened activity and abundance, consort of Dhyani Buddha Amoghasiddhi, Lord of Karma (action), Air element. Image and text via
Yowangdu, Green Tara Mantra: Om Tare Tuttare Ture Soha.
Retrieved 28.05.18. Emphasis added.

The first Dalai Lama wrote that we can call on [Tara] to instantly save us from eight particular dangers, each of which represents a corresponding human mental problem:

  • lions — pride
  • wild elephants — delusion and ignorance
  • forest fires — hatred
  • snakes — jealousy
  • robbers — wrong views, including
    fanatical views
  • prisons — greed and miserliness
  • floods — desire and attachment
  • demons — doubts caused by delusion

[...] When we chant the Green Tara mantra, we are not simply asking for Tara's blessings and help with our lives and our 'real world' problems [—] we are also asking to be liberated from the misery of the mental delusions and negative emotions that blind us to true freedom, and to achieve the same enlightened body, speech and mind that Tara represents, not only for our own benefit, but for the benefit of all sentient beings.

Om Tare Tuttare Ture Soha

The fourth notion to be thrown away is the notion of life span. We believe that we're born at one point in time, that we shall die at another point in time, and that in between is our life span. Most of us believe we'll spend seventy, eighty, ninety, one hundred years on this planet and then we'll be gone. But when we look deeply, we see this is a wrong perception. In our minds, to be born means that from nothing we become something; to die means that from something we become nothing; and from someone we become no one. But a cloud can't be born; it has come from the water in the rivers and oceans, and dust and the heat of the sun have helped create it. A cloud can never die; it can only become rain or snow. A piece of paper can't be born; it's made of trees, the sun, the cloud, the logger, and the worker in the paper factory. When we burn a piece of paper, the paper is transformed into heat, ash, and smoke; it cannot be reduced to nothingness. Birth and death are notions that cannot be applied to reality.

These four notions are at the foundation of our fear, discrimination, and suffering. When we are able to see them as wrong views, ignorance and suffering will no longer touch us. We'll no longer suffer because of our wrong views.

When we are caught in ideas of self, human being, living being, or life span, it's because we haven't been able to see Dependent Co-arising. When we are caught in the idea of a life span, we think, my life will only last a certain amount of time, and we start asking questions like, "Did I exist in the past?" "What was I in the past?" "When I die, will I still be there, and if I am, what will I be?" These questions only arise when we are caught in the ideas of self, human being, living being, and life span.


Chaisit Suwanvarangkul,
In Richard Payne, ed., Oxford Bibliographies Online: Buddhism.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.
DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195393521-0027. Via Oxford Bibliographies. Retrieved 09.03.19. Links added.

The Sanskrit term pratītyasamutpāda
(Pāli paṭiccasamuppāda;
Tib. rten cing 'brel 'byung རྟེན་ཅིང་འབྲེལ་འབྱུང་;
Ch. yuán qǐ 縁起;
Jpn. engi; Kor. yeon-gi; Viet. Duyên khởi),
meaning "dependent arising" or "dependent origination", is the basis for the Buddha's teaching on the processes of birth and death and appears in the canon of the two major schools of Buddhism, Theravāda and Mahāyāna.

Pratītyasamutpāda is one of the terms that illuminate the ultimate truth in Buddhism. Specifically, it is a particular teaching of Buddhism that deals with the phenomenona, or perpetual changes, caused by karma, the vicissitudes of life, all of which come from direct causes (hetu) and indirect causes (pratyaya). The Buddha once said: "Those who perceive 'dependent origination' (pratīyasamutpāda) will perceive the dharma; those who perceive the dharma will perceive 'dependent origination'" (Saṃyutta Nikāya [Samyutta 22, 87]; see Bodhi 2000...)

Underlying the doctrine of pratīyasamutpāda is the notion that "Because this exists, that arises; because this does not exist, that does not arise." In short, all the Buddha's other teachings may be seen as founded on the teaching of pratīyasamutpāda. Pratītyasamutpāda can be also connected to other Buddhist philosophy, such as Dharmadhātu, which states that all beings create themselves and that even the universe is self-created. Dharmadhātu has come to represent the universe as universally corelative, generally interdependent, and mutually originating, and it states that no single being exists independently. Dharmadhātu is also an ethical and a psychological transformation that occurs in the modern world: we can escape the bonds of the existence of samsara by cutting the psychological roots of suffering. This is none other than nirvana.

Dependent origination

Excerpt from Dependent origination,
by Christina Feldman, Insight Journal. Spring 1999. Original article excerpted from a program offered by Christina at the Barre Center for Buddhist Studies on 18 October 1998. Retrieved 09.03.19

[...] In the Buddha's teachings, the second noble truth is not a theory about what happens to somebody else, but is a process which is going on over and over again in our own lives — through all our days, and countless times every single day. This process in Pali is called paṭicca-samuppāda, sometimes translated as "dependent origination" or "co-dependent origination" or "causal interdependence." [...]

Paṭicca-samuppāda is said to be the heart of right view or right understanding. It is an understanding that is also the beginning of the eight-fold path, or an understanding that gives rise to a life of wisdom and freedom. The Buddha went on to say that when a noble disciple fully sees the arising and cessation of the world, he or she is said to be endowed with perfect view, with perfect vision — to have attained the true dharma, to possess the knowledge and skill, to have entered the stream of the dharma, to be a noble disciple replete with purifying understanding — one who is at the very door of the deathless. So, this is a challenge for us.

What the paṭicca-samuppāda actually describes is a vision of life or an understanding in which we see the way everything is interconnected — that there is nothing separate, nothing standing alone. Everything effects everything else. We are part of this system. We are part of this process of dependent origination — causal relationships effected by everything that happens around us and, in turn, effecting the kind of world that we all live in inwardly and outwardly.

It is also important to understand that freedom is not found separate from this process. It is not a question of transcending this process to find some other dimension; freedom is found in this very process of which we are a part. And part of that process of understanding what it means to be free depends on understanding inter-connectedness, and using this very process, this very grist of our life, for awakening.

Doctrinally, there are two ways in which this process of paṭicca-samuppāda is approached. In one view it is held to be something taking place over three lifetimes, and this view goes into the issues of rebirth and karma. My own approach today is the second view, which I think is really very vital and alive, which looks at paṭicca-samuppāda as a way of understanding what happens in our own world, inwardly and outwardly, on a moment-to-moment level. It's about what happens in our heart, what happens in our consciousness, and how the kind of world we experience and live in is actually created every moment.

To me, the significance of this whole description is that if we understand the way our world is created, we also then become a conscious participant in that creation. It describes a process that is occurring over and over again very rapidly within our consciousness. By this time in the day, you have probably all gone throughout countless cycles of dependent origination already. Perhaps you had a moment of despair about what you had for breakfast or what happened on the drive out here, a mind-storm about something that happened yesterday, some sort of anticipation about what might happen today — countless moments that you have gone through where you have experienced an inner world arising: I like this; I don't like this; the world is like this; this is how it happened; I feel this; I think that.

Already this early in the day, we could track down countless cycles of this process of paṭicca-samuppāda — when we've been elated, when we've been sad, when we've been self-conscious, fearful — we've been spinning the wheel. And, it is important to understand this as a wheel, as a process. It is not something static or fixed, not something that stays the same [...] visualize this as something alive and moving [...]

The basic principle of dependent origination is simplicity itself. The Buddha described it by saying:
When there is this, that is.
With the arising of this, that arises.
When this is not, neither is that.
With the cessation of this, that ceases.

When all of these cycles of feeling, thought, bodily sensation, all of these cycles of mind and body, action, and movement, are taking place upon a foundation of ignorance — that's called saṃsāra. That sense of wandering in confusion or blindly from one state of experience to another, one state of reaction to another, one state of contraction to another, without knowing what's going on, is called saṃsāra. [...] ⇒ Read More

Epistemological principle of pratītyasamutpāda

Pratītyasamutpāda, Wikipedia. Retrieved 09.03.19.

According to Stephen Laumakis, pratītyasamutpāda is also an epistemological principle; that is, a theory about how we gain correct and incorrect knowledge about being, becoming, existence and reality. [44] The 'dependent origination' doctrine, states Peter Harvey, "highlights the Buddhist notion that all apparently substantial entities within the world are in fact wrongly perceived. We live under the illusion that terms such as 'I', self, mountain, tree, etc. denote permanent and stable things. The doctrine teaches this is not so."[45] There is nothing permanent (anicca), nothing substantial, no unique individual self in the nature of becoming and existence (anatta), because everything is a result of "dependent origination". [45][35] [46] There are no independent objects and independent subjects; according to the Pratītyasamutpāda doctrine, there is fundamental emptiness in all phenomena and experiences. [44]

He who sees the Paṭiccasamuppāda sees the Dhamma;
He who sees the Dhamma sees the Paṭiccasamuppāda.
Majjhima Nikaya 1.190, Translated by David Williams[43]

Reality in Buddhism

Via Wikipedia. Retrieved 27.05.18. Emphasis added.


[The Five Aggregates in Buddhist phenomenology]

Via Wikipedia. Retrieved 27.05.18. Emphasis added.

Skandhas (Sanskrit) or khandhas (Pāḷi) means "heaps, aggregates, collections, groupings".[1]

In Buddhism, it refers to the five aggregates concept that asserts five factors constitute and completely explain a sentient being's mental and physical existence.[2][3][4]

The five aggregates or heaps are: form (or matter or body) (rupa), sensations (or feelings, received from form) (vedana), perceptions (samjna), mental activity or formations (sankhara), and consciousness (vijnana).[5][6][7]

The skandhas refute the idea of a "being or individual", and complements the anatta doctrine of Buddhism which asserts that all things and beings are without self.[3][8][9]

The anatta and "five aggregates" doctrines are part of the liberating knowledge in Buddhism, wherein one realizes that the "being" is merely made up of a temporary grouping of five aggregates, each of which are "not I, and not myself", and each of the skandha is empty, without substance.[10][11]

We can look at the concepts of not-permanent and not-self in objective terms, for example by deconstructing the concept of an aggregated object such as a lotus and seeing that the flower is made up entirely of non-flower elements like soil, nutrients, photosynthetic energy, rain water and the effort of the entities that nourished and grew the flower. All of these factors, according to the Diamond Sutra, co-exist with each other to manifest what we call a 'flower'. In other words, there is no essence arisen from nothingness that is unique and personal to any being. In particular, there is neither a human soul that lives on beyond the death of the physical body nor one that is extinguished at death since, strictly speaking, there is nothing to extinguish. The relative reality (i.e., the illusory perceived reality) comes from our belief that we are separate from the rest of the things in the universe and, at times, at odds with the processes of nature and other beings. The ultimate or absolute reality, in some schools of Buddhist thought, shows ... we are inter-connected with all things. The concept of non-discrimination expands on this by saying that, while a chair is different from a flower, they 'inter-are' because they are each made of non-flower and non-chair elements. Ultimately those elements are the same, so the distinction between chair and flower is one of quantity not of quality.